" The complexity of zoonotic and emerging diseases warranted an effective preparedness in handling an outbreak. The factors that contribute to their occurrences include microbial, environmental, host and population dynamics as well as ease of worldwide travel and breakdown in control measures. Moreover, the changes in transmission dynamics bring into a closer and a more frequent contact with zoonotic pathogens, which are involved in 75% of the outbreaks.
Thus, with respect to the changes observed, four major areas need to be explored, which are rapid detection, improved surveillance, good early warning and appropriate response. Investigation on emergent pandemic infection threat and pathogen discovery are also emphasised as the pro-active phase in predicting and controlling/eradicating an outbreak of a zoonotic and/or emerging disease."